NY State Writing Standards
The following standards for K–5 offer a focus for instruction each year to help ensure that students gain adequate mastery of a range of skills and applications. Each year in their writing, students should demonstrate increasing sophistication in all aspects of language use, from vocabulary and syntax to the development and organization of ideas, and they should address increasingly demanding content and sources. Students advancing through the grades are expected to meet each year’s grade-specific standards and retain or further develop skills and understandings mastered in preceding grades. The expected growth in student writing ability is reflected both in the standards themselves and in the collection of annotated student writing samples in Appendix C.
Text Types and Purposes
- W.K.1. Use a combination of drawing, dictating, and writing to compose opinion pieces in which they tell a reader the topic or the name of the book they are writing about and state an opinion or preference about the topic or book (e.g., My favorite book is...).
- W.K.2. Use a combination of drawing, dictating, and writing to compose informative/explanatory texts in which they name what they are writing about and supply some information about the topic.
- W.K.3. Use a combination of drawing, dictating, and writing to narrate a single event or several loosely linked events, tell about the events in the order in which they occurred, and provide a reaction to what happened.
Production and Distribution of Writing
- W.K.4. (Begins in grade 3)
- W.K.5. With guidance and support from adults, respond to questions and suggestions from peers and add details to strengthen writing as needed.
- W.K.6. With guidance and support from adults, explore a variety of digital tools to produce and publish writing, including in collaboration with peers.
Research to Build and Present Knowledge
- W.K.7. Participate in shared research and writing projects (e.g., explore a number of books by a favorite author and express opinions about them).
- W.K.8. With guidance and support from adults, recall information from experiences or gather information from provided sources to answer a question.
- W.K.9. (Begins in grade 4)
Range of Writing
- W.K.10. (Begins in grade 3)
The following standards for grades K–5 offer a focus for instruction each year to help ensure that students gain adequate mastery of a range of skills and applications. Students advancing through the grades are expected to meet each year’s grade-specific standards and retain or further develop skills and understandings mastered in preceding grades. Beginning in grade 3, skills and understandings that are particularly likely to require continued attention in higher grades as they are applied to increasingly sophisticated writing and speaking are marked with an asterisk (*).
Conventions of Standard English
- L.K.1. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking.
- Print many upper- and lowercase letters.
- Use frequently occurring nouns and verbs.
- Form regular plural nouns orally by adding /s/ or /es/ (e.g., dog, dogs; wish, wishes).
- Understand and use question words (interrogatives) (e.g., who, what, where, when, why, how).
- Use the most frequently occurring prepositions (e.g., to, from, in, out, on, off, for, of, by, with).
- Produce and expand complete sentences in shared language activities.
- L.K.2. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing.
- Capitalize the first word in a sentence and the pronoun I.
- Recognize and name end punctuation.
- Write a letter or letters for most consonant and short-vowel sounds (phonemes).
- Spell simple words phonetically, drawing on knowledge of sound-letter relationships.
Knowledge of Language
- L.K.3. (Begins in grade 2)
Vocabulary Acquisition and Use
- L.K.4. Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based on kindergarten reading and content.
- Identify new meanings for familiar words and apply them accurately (e.g., knowing duck is a bird and learning the verb to duck).
- Use the most frequently occurring inflections and affixes (e.g., -ed, -s, re-, un-, pre-, -ful, -less) as a clue to the meaning of an unknown word.
- L.K.5. With guidance and support from adults, explore word relationships and nuances in word meanings.
- Sort common objects into categories (e.g., shapes, foods) to gain a sense of the concepts the categories represent.
- Demonstrate understanding of frequently occurring verbs and adjectives by relating them to their opposites (antonyms).
- Identify real-life connections between words and their use (e.g., note places at school that are colorful).
- Distinguish shades of meaning among verbs describing the same general action (e.g., walk, march, strut, prance) by acting out the meanings.
- L.K.6. Use words and phrases acquired through conversations, reading and being read to, and responding to texts.